While neither chapter is associated with better physical or
While neither chapter is associated with better physical or mental health estimates were stronger for Chapter 7 female filers. It may be that there is misalignment with what individuals seek when pursuing assistance and the offerings of the program. For example, a non-negligible portion of Chapter 13 filers agrees to repay 100% of their debts (Sullivan, Warren, & Westbrook, 1999). This is an indication that these filers are primarily using bankruptcy to extend the time to repay debt and retain assets. Obtaining more time to buy down one\'s debts, decreasing harassment, and holding onto one\'s assets (even if they VE-822 manufacturer are of little to no value) might reduce stress and lower anxiety. This specific aim frames how they assess their current post-bankruptcy situation when compared with their pre-bankruptcy state.
This study is not without limitations. There is no information on how long filers held their debts prior to declaring. Interview data of bankrupt filers suggest that they tend to struggle for one to two years on average prior to filing and that most filers have tried many ways to get rid of the debt prior to filing (Porter, 2012). Debt amounts are also measured at the household debt and not person-specific. In this case, these estimates may represent a conservative estimate and household financial issues, even if they are not one\'s making, can spillover to other members within the household. There is also no information on how the consumer debt was acquired. It was impossible to determine whether the debt is medical related or credit card debt. And last, there is no information on whether filers used lawyers to assistance with the process. Littwin (2012) finds that successful navigation through the bankruptcy process is positively correlated with attorney use.
Introduction Much work in the late 1990s and early 2000s highlighted the emerging role of the neighbourhood social environment in public health research. These works described the influence of neighbourhood social processes on individual health and well-being outcomes and highlighted the need for a better understanding of how we conceptualise and measure the social environment (i.e., Earls & Carlson, 2001; Morrow, 1999, 2001; Yen & Syme, 1999). Overall, the neighbourhood social environment is defined as the social dimensions of the neighbourhoods in which we live (Yen & Syme, 1999). However, the complexity of these social dimensions leads to ambiguity of definitions that creates difficulties in measurement (Earls & Carlson, 2001). In a seminal piece of work, Sampson, Morenoff, and Gannon-Rowley (2002) synthesised the evidence on the role of the social environment on health behaviours and outcomes, with a particular focus on adolescents. The authors provided a summary of neighbourhood social mechanisms, extending beyond more traditional measures of neighbourhood deprivation, and drew several conclusions regarding future research directions. They concluded that, relating to issues of consistency in how measures were operationalised and theoretically situated, questions remained as to whether the neighbourhood social environment is best measured by a few higher-level constructs or several sub-domains. Additionally, while community-based surveys were found to yield valid measurements of the neighbourhood social environment, methods for evaluating ecological (aggregate) measures, termed ‘ecometrics’, were not widespread, though needed in a multilevel framework (Earls & Carlson, 2001; Sampson et al., 2002). More than a decade later much inconsistency and debate still exists regarding how best to conceptualise and measure the neighbourhood social environment, particularly when studying adolescents. Among adolescents, choice and freedom to engage in behaviours is influenced, at least in part, by the neighbourhood social environments to which they are exposed (Morrow, 1999, 2001). Adolescents are active agents within their neighbourhoods; however, their agencies within the wider social and physical environments are widely overlooked in studies that utilize adult-centred measures (Morrow, 1999; Paiva et al., 2014). This signifies a methodological weakness as adult perceptions of the neighbourhood cannot fully represent the perceptions that young people have of their environment (Schaefer-McDaniel, 2004). Some evidence of this is provided by studies that examine both perceptions of adolescents and adults and find differing results on outcomes (Byrnes, Chen, Miller, & Maguin, 2007; Byrnes et al., 2013; DeHaan, Boljevac, & Schaefer, 2009). Therefore, interferons is reasoned that adolescent-centred approaches are more theoretically valid than adult measures of the adolescent environment, as young people may have different perceptions of their neighbourhood than adults, are generally exposed to fewer neighbourhoods due to a relative lack of mobility, and may have access to different areas within their neighbourhood.