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  • tnf alpha inhibitors More immediate factors may also be

    2018-10-26

    More immediate factors may also be important mediators through which family wealth may influence young adult mental health. One possible mechanism is by facilitating higher educational attainment, which is strongly related to mental health in young adults (Adams, Knopf, & Park, 2014). Indeed, some studies have found that tnf alpha inhibitors current SES fully accounted for associations between childhood SES and mental health during adolescence and adulthood (Headey & Wooden, 2004; Melchior et al., 2007; Poulton et al., 2002). Young adults’ financial circumstances may also mediate influence from family wealth on mental health. Young adults from wealthier families, for example, may have less debt than their peers from less wealthy families. Additionally, wealthy parents may contribute financially to help pay for their children\'s cost of living.
    Methods
    Results Just over half the sample was female, the majority were non-Hispanic and of white (46%) or black (40%) race, and median age was 20 (Table 1). Prevalences of moderate and serious psychological distress were 44% and 4%, respectively (not shown). There were no large differences in covariate distributions between observations with low and moderate psychological distress. Childhood wealth percentile, childhood income percentile, mother\'s education, and participant education all varied inversely with serious psychological distress. The three measures of childhood socioeconomic status were correlated but not perfectly so: Spearman rank correlations were 0.71 for childhood wealth percentile and childhood income percentile, 0.38 for childhood wealth percentile and mother\'s years of education, and 0.56 for childhood income percentile and mother\'s years of education. The Pearson correlation between absolute measures of childhood average wealth and childhood average income (often reported in comparisons of income and wealth) was 0.34. In unadjusted multinomial logistic regression models, higher childhood wealth quartile was monotonically related to a lower prevalence of serious psychological distress but was not related to the prevalence of moderate psychological distress (Table 2, Model 1). Odds of serious psychological distress were very similar for quartiles 1 and 2 (odds ratio [OR] for quartile 2 vs. quartile 1=0.91 [(95% confidence interval) 0.59–1.40]) and for quartiles 3 and 4 (compared to quartile 1, OR=0.52 [0.31–0.87] and OR=0.45 [0.27–0.76], respectively). After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, and age, young adults in the highest quartile of childhood wealth had 0.42 (0.24–0.72) times the odds of serious psychological distress compared to those in the lowest quartile, but nearly the same odds of moderate psychological distress (OR=1.01 [0.80–1.28]). For all three measures of childhood SES (childhood wealth percentile, childhood income percentile, mother\'s education), there was little evidence in LOESS plots of an association between socioeconomic status and serious psychological distress below the 50th percentile of the socioeconomic status measure (Fig. 1), with roughly 5% of these low-SES-background young adults experiencing serious distress. Above the 50th percentile, all three measures of childhood SES were negatively associated with a lower prevalence of serious psychological distress. At the 85th percentile of the wealth and income distribution, and mother\'s education of at least a bachelor\'s degree, roughly 2.5% had serious psychological distress. Table 3 shows results from log-binomial regression models of serious psychological distress, with low and moderate distress combined into a single referent group. Similar to the multinomial logistic regression models in Table 2, childhood wealth in quartiles 3 and 4 were related to a lower prevalence of serious psychological distress compared to the lowest quartile (in demographics-adjusted models, PR=0.90 [0.60–1.34], PR=0.52 [0.32–0.85], and PR=0.41 [0.24–0.68] for quartiles 2, 3 and 4, respectively). The association between greater childhood wealth and lower serious psychological distress was not substantively attenuated by adjustment for mother\'s education (Table 3, model 3), but the association for quartile 4 was more substantially attenuated by adjustment for childhood income percentile (Table 3, model 4). After adjustment for both mother\'s education and childhood income, prevalence ratios for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of wealth were 0.90 (0.61, 1.34), 0.57 (0.34–0.97), and 0.60 (0.33–1.09), respectively. This suggests chemical equilibrium childhood wealth above the median value may influence psychological distress even independent of these other measures of SES, although the quartile 4 result is not statistically significant at α=0.05. Because wealth and income influence each other over time, these mutually adjusted estimates are likely underestimates of the true total effects of both measures. However, we present them as conservative estimates of childhood household wealth independent of income.