br Experimental Thiophene aniline and titanium chloride
Experimental Thiophene, aniline and titanium chloride (TiCl4) were purchased from SD fine, India. AR grade were used as starting chemicals, without further purification. The TiCl4 was used as an oxidizing agent to initiate the chemical polymerization. The random copolymer of PTh-co-PANI-Ti was synthesized by taking a 1:1:1 molar ratio of aniline, thiophene and TiCl4. In a typical synthesis process, both monomer solutions were added in a beaker under rigorous magnetic stirring. As soon as TiCl4 was added in that solution, it started the polymerization reaction with the change in the color of PTh and PANI solution instantaneously and therefore the solution became dark brown. In the fabrication of a PV cell, ITO-coated glass substrate was cleaned ultrasonically in a mixture of detergent, deionized water, acetone and ethanol for 90min. The doctor blade technique was used for the deposition of the active layer of PTh-co-PANI-Ti composite on ITO substrates. During the fabrication of PV cell, aluminum foil with a thickness of 0.22µm was used for the metallic contact. This foil was placed onto the active layer of the composite. In this way, the PV cell in the ITO/ PTh-co-PANI-Ti/Al architecture was fabricated to obtain PV response at room temperature under an incandescent light bulb with the light intensity of 100, 200, 300mW/cm2. The photovoltaic response was taken for three times for reproducibility of our PV cell. A side view of the as-fabricated PV cell is shown in Fig. 1.
Conclusions In the present paper, we have successfully synthesized a random copolymer between PTh and PANI. The as-synthesized copolymer was successfully employed for PV application. The power performance of the as-fabricated PV dub inhibitor was enhanced by using light intensity. The short-circuit current increased from =0.11mA/cm2 for the reference cell to 0.72mA/cm2 for the best PTh-co-PANI-Ti PV cell. The current gain gives a rise of the conversion efficiency from η=0.21% to 1.50%. This enhancement is explained by light scattering from the surface of the PTh-co-PANI-Ti composite active layer. The copolymer composite absorbed light in a spectral range from the UV region to near 300nm. In view of the characterization we carried out, we can conclude that material design strategies provide us with efficient pathways for obtaining polymer composites with altered optical and thermal properties.
Introduction The current main problem in the pharmaceutical industry is related to strategies that augment the aqueous solubility of drugs, as almost 70% of the newly discovered drug candidates suffer from poor aqueous solubility . Solubility is one of the prime features to accomplish desired pharmacological response. Therapeutic effectiveness of a drug depends upon the bioavailability and ultimately is attributed to solubility of drug moiety . Presently, numerous formulation technologies are available to enhance solubility as well as dissolution profile to enhance oral bioavailability . In addition to these technologies, ʻhydrotropyʼ is one of the recognized techniques available for resolving solubility issues. This review will elaborate various hypothetical and investigational mechanisms, geometrical features and applications of hydrotropic agents in pharmaceutical field which will aid the researchers to explore hydrotropy for progress in drug delivery.
Hydrotropy and hydrotropic agents In 1916, ‘hydrotropy’ term was coined by the scientist Carl A. Neuberg . Hydrotropes with an amphiphilic molecular structure possess the ability to increase the solubility of sparingly soluble organic molecules in water . It is a molecular phenomenon whereby adding a second solute (hydrotrope) helps to increase the aqueous solubility of poorly soluble solutes . Simply the presence of a large quantity of one solute enhances the solubility of another solute . Hydrotropic agents are stated as ionic organic salts which help to increase or decrease the solubility of solute in a given solvent via ‘salt in’ or ‘salt out’ effects, respectively. Salts which show ‘salt in’ of non-electrolytes are called “hydrotropic salts” and the phenomenon is known as “hydrotropism”. They do not exhibit any colloidal properties but they improve solubility by forming weak interaction with solute molecules . A hydrotropic molecule interacts with a less water-soluble molecule via weak van der Waals interactions such as π–π or attractive dipole–dipole interaction .