br Materials and methods br Results
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Conclusion India has enormous varieties of underutilized fruits that vary in appearance and organoleptic features as well as presence of varieties of bioactive compounds. The delicious sweet fruits as well as the seeds of M. hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard are good source of antioxidants which reinforce the beneficial health effects of the whole fruit extensively used by the tribal population for medicinal purpose to cure several diseases throughout the year after drying of the fruits. This might be also partly attributed to its high polyphenol content. In addition, quantification of individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds is also important for the initial understanding of the possible dietary intake of these compounds. From the present study, we identified and quantified eleven phenolic compounds. Thus, considering the presence of recognized antioxidant compounds such as gallic akt inhibitors and quercetin in fruit and seed samples, it is possible to think that their regular consumption can have a beneficial effect on human health, which validates the use of the plant in popular medicine. Further studies are required to confirm the results of the present study which may also include the findings regarding the new biochemical properties. Large-scale column separation and isolation of the phenolic compounds by LC–MS needs to be carried out at the earliest stage.
Conflict of interest
Acknowledgements We are grateful to the University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for financial support under Major Research Project (F.No.39-96/2010) and for award of UGC BSR fellowship to the first author (Office order No. C/2013/8012). Food Testing Laboratory (Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India) for analysis of phenolic compounds and Dr. T.V. Ramana Rao (Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India) for editing manuscript.
Introduction Liver plays a pivotal role in regulating various physiological processes and is the centre of metabolism of nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. It is also involved in the metabolism and excretion of drugs and other xenobiotics and provide protection against foreign substances by detoxifying and eliminating them [1,2]. As a result, the liver is exposed to all types of toxic abuse from both endogenous and exogenous sources which may produce liver degeneration. Liver diseases have become one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in man and hepatotoxicity due to drugs appears to be the most common contributing factor [2,3]. Excessive intake of acetaminophen, also known as paracetamol, can cause severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity . Acetaminophen is activated and converted by cytochrome P450 enzymes to toxic metabolite NAPQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine) that causes oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion which is associated with its hepatotoxicity . In spite of the tremendous advances in modern medicine, there is no effective drug available that stimulates liver function, offers protection to the liver from damage or helps to regenerate hepatic cells . Medicinal plants play a key role in human and animal health care. About 80% of the world population rely on the use of traditional medicine, which is predominantly based on plant material . The increasing popularity of herbal medicine and the well-established health benefits of phytochemicals have led to the emergence of several nutraceutical and phytopharmaceutical products which are used as nutritional supplements to enhance general wellbeing or as drugs for therapeutic purposes. Previous studies have shown that hepatoprotective effects are associated with phytoextracts rich in natural antioxidants [6–8]. Many bioactive compounds and extracts from plants have thus been investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects against hepatotoxin-induced liver damage [9–11]. The bioactivity of these herbal products are due mainly to constituent phenolics, flavonoids and other phytochemicals [12–15].