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  • br Conclusions and practical implications Since the

    2018-11-15


    Conclusions and practical implications Since the results of this study showed that artificial neural networks have an impressive ability in analyzing customer satisfaction, perceived value, and loyalty, it is recommended that companies use this state of the art data analytics technique in order to analyze customer behavior and to make better decisions. In addition to their high performance in predicting customer loyalty, artificial neural networks are very flexible and can be easily manipulated in order to include more or fewer factors. In linear regression, the performance of the model can be improved only by adding additional variables, but artificial neural networks can be enhanced even by changing the relationships between the existing variables. Although regression models are very popular, but their limitations can negatively affect the quality of statistical data analysis, therefore, it is suggested to use neural networks in order to obtain more accurate and interpretable results. Using efficient data analysis techniques is considered as an important factor in today׳s competitive business environment (Reddy, 2015). The use of new techniques such as artificial neural networks for analyzing the customer behavior can be particularly beneficial for startup companies who aspire to gain competitive advantage over their strong and well-established rivals.
    Directions for future research
    Introduction There are about 1.3 billion smokers in the world, and tobacco and tobacco related products are major contributors towards deaths from chronic diseases worldwide (Inness, Barling, Rogers, & Turner, 2008). In US, cigarette smoking and tobacco exposure account for nearly 20% of all deaths every year (Parrinello et al., 2015). In fact, 18.8% of the people with mobility impairments in US were found to smoke (Borrelli, Busch, & Dunsiger, 2014). Another fact that draws attention is that smoking rate is much higher among people living in poverty (Lee, Cutler, & Burns, 2005; Bourdeau, Brady, & Cronin, 2006). Approximately 80 percent of all smokers live in developing economies. Tobacco and liquor organizations face increasing pressure to lessen smoking and drinking among egfr pathway (Yang, Schaninger, & Laroche, 2013). Governments across the world are trying to discourage cigarette smoking through DE marketing strategies. DE marketing is “that aspect of marketing Pairing of chromosomes deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis,” (Moore, 2005). Most of the ongoing DE marketing campaigns focus on the development of social norms reinforcing the view that smoking is injurious to health, and an undesirable and irresponsible behavior (Kim & Shanahan, 2003). Various governments across the world are trying to increase taxes on tobacco products to discourage their consumption (Cebula, Foley, & Houmes, 2014).
    Literature review Kotler and Levy (1971) recommend that organizations need to specifically demarket their items to manage transitory deficiencies and overabundance requests, and also lessen requests from \"undesirable sections\". Their emphasis was on how firms pick the ideal marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion) to manage their association with customers. Cullwick (1975) focused on the vital role of the marketing mix elements in demarketing (Lawther, Hastings, & Lowry, 1997). Demarketing intends to decrease demand by discouraging purchasing and utilization of items such as liquor and cigarettes that pose dangers to wellbeing (Comm, 1998). Governments use different demarketing systems and instruments to check smoking, including tobacco publicizing bans (Saffer and Chaloupka, 2000), increase prices (Andrews and Franke, 1991), and smoking bans (Wall, 2005). According to W.H.O. estimates, approximately 47% of all men and 12% of all women smoke worldwide. In developing countries, 48% of men and 7% of women smoke. The global youth tobacco survey conducted in 131 countries with a sample size of 7,50,000 students of ages 13–15 years found that approximately 9% students were current smokers while 11% used tobacco products other than cigarettes. It has also been observed that the majority of smokers have a strong desire to quit. However, the addictive nature of tobacco acts as a powerful deterrent to sustained quitting attempts. Statistics show that 78% of smokers try to give up smoking and 83% regret adopting the habit, but only a marginal number (3–5%) manage to abstain for a minimum of 12 months (Hyland et al., 2004).