acetaminophen paracetamol br Conflict of interest statement
Conflict of interest statement
Acknowledgement The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – projects “CENAKVA” (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024) and “CENAKVA II” (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), by the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice (No. 087/2013/Z) and by the Czech Science Foundation (No. P503/11/1130). Individual CYP450 activities were analysed at Swedish University of Agricultural sciences, NJ Faculty. We also thank American Manuscript Editors for editing the English manuscript.
Introduction Antipsychotics accounted for over 14million US treatment visits in 2008 (Mark, 2010). There is significant interindividual variation in response to antipsychotics, much of which remains unexplained (Stroup, 2007). Antipsychotics are one of the most highly individualized acetaminophen paracetamol of medications. Despite the fact that a number of first- and second-generation antipsychotics are available, achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes can be challenging for some individuals. The majority of patients with schizophrenia do not experience complete therapeutic benefit with antipsychotic therapy, which can lead to polypharmacy, a practice poorly supported by clinical evidence and associated with risk of adverse effects (McEvoy et al., 2006, Zink et al., 2010). Further, risk of discontinuation and relapse can result from treatment-limiting adverse effects and long-term side effects such as weight gain and metabolic syndrome (Cha and McIntyre, 2012). Variability in response to antipsychotics can be influenced by an array of factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, nutritional status, smoking, and alcohol use. There is strong evidence for the role of genetic variability in individual responses to antipsychotic therapy. Advances in pharmacogenetic research have led to discovery of many polymorphisms strongly linked to the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of antipsychotic medications. The goal of clinical pharmacogenetics is to use individual-level genetic data to predict and optimize the response to antipsychotics while preventing or minimizing adverse events. Use of pharmacogenetics has demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in many therapy areas, and is generally cost effective (Crews et al., 2012). Nevertheless, evidence-based guidelines for pharmacogenetics remain scarce, and there are numerous barriers to its clinical implementation (McCullough et al., 2011, Mrazek and Lerman, 2011, Schnoll and Shields, 2011).
Pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotics
Pharmacokinetics and genetic variations in CYP450 enzymes Historically, pharmacogenetics has focused on drug metabolizing enzymes as a result of their wide variation in comparison to allelic polymorphisms of pharmacodynamic drug targets (Brosen, 2004). Further, outcomes of genetic variation are easier to measure because drug metabolism assays are standardized, and interpretation is relatively straightforward. For example, a low steady-state concentration indicates rapid metabolism and a high concentration indicates slow metabolism. Numerous enzymes associated with drug absorption and elimination have been the subject of pharmacogenetic studies, which are recommended or required by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for certain therapies. The FDA requires information related to pharmacogenetic biomarkers in the labeling of over 100 drugs, 27 of which are for agents with a primary indication in psychiatry (US Food and Drug Administration, 2012). Association of an enzyme with metabolism of a drug is necessary but not sufficient justification for pharmacogenetic testing, as many drugs may be metabolized by alternative pathways. Further, pharmacogenetic results should be interpreted in context of the physician\'s knowledge of other factors that influence efficacy and toxicity of antipsychotic agents, such as comorbidities, adherence, body weight, and smoking (Rostami-Hodjegan et al., 2004). In addition to pharmacogenetic considerations, CYP isoforms can be induced and inhibited by certain drugs, which can substantially alter metabolism of other drugs through drug–drug interactions.