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  • br Acknowledgements This work was supported by


    Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40976065, 41576116).
    Introduction Arachidonic np e via cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) can elicit the formation of lipid mediators with vasoactive actions: the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) mainly vasodilators and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a vasoconstrictor [1]. Both these compounds are natriuretic at kidney level. Since the 80’s their putative role in different animal models of hypertension and/or stroke has been explored but their role in humans seldom tested also due to the difficulty to obtain an accurate dosage [2]. More recently, the discovery of the specific receptor for 20-HETE have revitalized the research in the field and offered some other molecular target to be explored [3]. Since 2000, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism via CYP450 have been tested for a possible association with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) Fig. 1. In 2011, a previous review by our group collected the most significant studies and concluded that some SNPs in CYP enzymes can be associated with either hypertension or vascular disease, especially stroke with notable sex-specific effect [4] Fig. 1. The present narrative review wants to update the state of the art on the field trying to summarize evidences that come from newer studies, meta-analyses and genome wide association studies. Moreover, the actual review aims at offering a rapid glance to nutrition studies looking for substances that can interact with this metabolic pathway pushing the formation of these compounds or others formed by CYP450.
    Funding The study is supported by a grant of the Italian Ministry of Health (GR-2011-02349630) to CF in agreement with the ‘Regione Veneto’ and the ‘Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona’.
    Introduction In terrestrial ecosystems, earthworms play an important role in the formation and the development of soil (Lee, 1985). They can successfully adapt to various types of polluted environments, and ameliorate the contamination, thus there must be a robust detoxification capacity in their tissues and organs, to resist the harmful effects of the many xenobiotics encountered in the environments they inhabit. However, there have been very few studies to date investigating differences in protein expression in the detoxification systems of earthworms and whether there is variability linked to the habitat occupied. For example, the different burrowing habits of epigeic (shallow-burrowing) or endogeic (deep-burrowing) species may result in differences in pattern of contaminant exposure. Similarly, little is known about the behavioural ecology of many earthworm species, so that if juveniles and adults of a species have differing habitats or behaviours then, logically, differences in protein expression could be expected. CYP450 enzymes have an important role in microsomal oxidase function across a broad range of taxa (Pakharukova et al., 2012). They are involved in metabolism and detoxification of both internally generated compounds and xenobiotics as the phase I metabolizing enzymes and play an important role in maintaining internal homeostasis (Anzenbacher, 2001). In some cases, however, the metabolites of CYP action on xenobiotics such as benzo(a)pyrene are also toxic or carcinogenic (Minacapelli et al., 2013). In the CYP super family, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 have significant roles in drug metabolism in humans and other mammals (Snyder, 2000, Huang and Yang, 2001). They are the three most studied sub-enzymes in the P450 super family, accounting for approximately 13%, 7% and 50% respectively, of the total CYP450 protein content in human liver and are found in similar abundance in many other mammals (Schumacher and Jose, 2012). Because earthworms are able to adapt to a wide range of polluted soil environments, live in direct contact with, and ingest the various pollutants, it can be hypothesized that their body tissues require a high detoxification capacity compared with many other organisms and that these three CYP enzymes would be involved in such a detoxification processes.