br Conservation treatment br Local simulation and recovery
Local simulation and recovery The colored painting in Xiaonan Garden has been severely destroyed. For the lost part, we use an infrared camera to obtain an infrared photo but find no damage. Thus, we conduct a typological analysis of the colored painting. Based on similar and symmetrical patterns in the painting, we use a computer to complete the image by determining the pattern of the representative pictures. In virtual recovery, a basic principle is to represent to the maximum extent possible the information and unique charm of the colored painting without resorting to groundless fabrication. The virtual recovery of Four Lions Playing with Silk Ball is described below (Figs. 12–16).
Results and conclusion Jiangnan boasts of a long history of producing and using raw lacquer. Historical records and relics confirm that Chinese lacquer has been used as the bottom layer of architectural colored paintings. Chinese lacquer is generally used to make golden glaze. Oil painting has replaced Chinese lacquer in the Yunnan Province during the Qing Dynasty (He, 2010). Similar to hemp in northern China, ramie (Xia Bu in areas south of the Yangtze River) is widely used to solidify the underlying layer of architectural colored paintings. However, no reliable record or evidence shows that flax is placed at the bottom and that Chinese lacquer is used to glue the paper, in contrast to the Di Zhang in northern China and the lacquer paint in Jiangnan. Bark paper is used in paster colored painting. Before painting, a layer of white powder is brushed. Bark paper has been used since the Song Dynasty. In “Sha Qing” Tian Gong Kai Wu, the methods of using different kinds of transporters paper are introduced. The bark paper used in the colored painting of Xiaonan Garden is pure bark paper, with no bamboo hemp or grass. Pure bark paper has three advantages: First, it is thick and tough. Second, it does not become deformed. As Tian Gong Kai Wu indicates, the bark paper used in painting does not become deformed when soaked in alum solution (Song). Third, its bottom cannot be dyed using red Chinese lacquer. However, pure bark paper increases the acidity of the colored painting of Xiaonan Garden, thereby damaging matter and reducing its durability.
Introduction The Alhambra Palace was first constructed in 1236 by the last Muslim emirs (kings) in Spain and the Nasrid Dynasty. Later, in the 16th century, the Palace was renovated and modified for King Charles V (Figures 1 and 2). Consequently, European features intermingle with some of the finest examples of Moorish architecture in the world. Alhambra Palace incorporates many traditional Islamic details, such as column arcades, fountains, reflecting pools, geometrical patterns, Arabic inscriptions, and painted tiles. For many centuries, the maintenance of Alhambra Palace was neglected. Scholars and archeologists began restorations in the 19th century, and today, the Palace is a major touristic attraction and a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2007 (Jones, 2014; Mojtaba, 2009; Suarez and Bravo, 2014). Although the urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism raise the concerns of preventive conservators, the atmospheric risks related to the conservation of the Palace have yet to be sufficiently evaluated. In one of the few studies conducted to determine the indoor and outdoor air quality of the Alhambra monument, the application of complementary analytical chemical techniques was carried out to formulate a strategy for the preventive conservation of the monument (López et al., 1996; Horemans et al., 2011; Sarró et al., 2006). Some studies were recently conducted on pilot applications with compatible restoration mortars, which avoids the common practice of cement mortar mixtures (Cultrone et al., 2007; Binici et al., 2010; Boynton, 1980). The aim of the present study is to draw attention to the general resistance by investigating the physico-chemical and microscopic properties of masonry mortars from Alhambra Palace (Spain). The performance of Alhambra Palace against earthquake damage is dependent, to a large extent, on the physical characteristics of its mortars. Hence, compressive strength (durability) is a crucial parameter in the load capacity of structures and is, therefore, included in the present study.