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  • In this work the study of the


    In this work, the study of the spatial distribution of temperatures in two test tranylcypromine was based on the concept of the experimental typical day, which represents a specific climate condition according to the Dynamic Climate approach. The possibility of adopting this approach in a short time contributes to the understanding of climate conditions and its possible effects on the built environment, with respect to energy conservation as well as the behavior and thermal performance of buildings (Cardoso et al., 2012; Cardoso and Vecchia, 2013).
    Results On March 4th, 2013 (63rd Julian day) was taken as the reference day for the study of behavior and thermal performance for LGR and ceramic roof due to its remarkable heat characteristic that surpasses the value of 27°C, which is the average maximum of climatological normals obtained in São Carlos from 1961 to 1990. The temperature range recorded on this day was 13.93°C, with a minimum temperature of 17.94°C and a maximum of 31.87°C. The day was cloudless, with values of global solar radiation that reached 779W/m2.
    Comparison of test cells thermal performance
    Acknowledgment The authors wish to thank CNPq for their financial support and the staff of the Climatological Station CCEAMA-USP, for their collaboration on technical issues and on research execution.
    Introduction The tropical zone is the part of the earth that lies between the Tropic of Cancer (23°27′N) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23°27′S) (Ayoade, 1983). Atkinson (1954) and Edmonds and Greenup (2002) report that the equatorial zone has a hot and humid climate from 10° to 15° (north and south) of the equator, such as Southeast Asia, as shown in Figure 1. The tropical region is an uncomfortable climate zone that receives a large amount of solar radiation, high temperature, high level of relative humidity, and long periods of sunny days throughout the year. Recently, this region has undergone increased urbanisation, particularly developed countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, because of the rapid growth of the urban population, as shown in Figure 2. This development further increased the intensity of urban heat island (UHI) (Wong et al., 2011). This effect is associated with the increase in energy consumption, specifically the cooling issue, which is the primary concern of this region. Studies conducted by the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) indicate that the buildings in Singapore, the world׳s fourth leading financial centre, accounts for about 57% of the country׳s entire electricity consumption (Dong et al., 2005). In addition, the results show that the country׳s total household electricity consumption increased from 6514GWh in 2009 to 6560GWh in 2011 (The Energy Market Authority, 2011). The Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics of 2011 indicate that energy consumption in Indonesia increased by 15% from 2009 to 2010. The country׳s energy consumption climbed from 446.49 million BOE in 2000 to 998.52 million BOE in 2011, given that 51% of the energy is still derived from fossil sources (Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics of Indonesia, 2011; Ministry of Mineral Resources, 2011). The tranylcypromine Energy Commission (2010) of Malaysia indicated that the electricity demand increased from 14,245MW in 2009 to 15,072MW in 2010, reaching 15,476MW in 2011. The residential sector consumes about 20% of the energy supply. Approximately 21% of this portion is used to power air-conditioning and 2% to power other mechanical fans (IEA, 2009). Chan (2004) showed that in 1999, the total number of air-conditioning units in residential buildings owned by Malaysians was 493,082. This figure increased by 6.7% (528,792 units) in 2000 and by roughly 42% (907,670 units) in 2009 (Saidur et al., 2007). Al Yacouby et al. (2011) showed that about 75% of Malaysians rely on air-condoning to maintain a comfortable environment.